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活性炭的应用领域概述Application of Activated Carbon(壹)  

2018-03-18 19:15:23|  分类: 活性炭产业 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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资料编辑:吉建斌2010年2月

1、Water Applications 与水处理有关的应用领域

1.1  Drinking Water/ Municipal Drinking Water/Potable Water  饮用水处理

Activated carbon is used successfully for purification and remediation of surfacewater or groundwater. These water sources can be treated by Powdered Activated Carbon, Granular Activated Carbon and Extruded Activated Carbon.

In potable water treatment, activated carbon has been used to remove taste, odor, microorganisms, and dissolved organic chemicals.

For drinking water treatment, activated carbon adsorption is an  effective and low-cost technological method.

活性炭被成功地应用于地表水和地下水的净化处理。用于饮用水源处理的活性炭品种有粉状活性炭、颗粒活性炭和挤出成型活性炭(即圆柱状活性炭)等。

活性炭可去除饮用水源中的异嗅、异味、微生物和溶解性有机化合物等成分。

活性炭吸附是饮用水处理领域的一种有效的、低成本的技术方法。

1.1.1  Dechlorination/Chloramine Removal脱氯/脱氯胺

Treatment with chlorine is the most common method of providing a biologically safe drinking water supply. After treatment, however, chlorine remaining in the water at the tap can cause undesirable taste and odor, and may contribute to health problems.

To avoid problems associated with the formation of trihalomethanes (THMs), many municipalities are switching to chloramine instead of chlorine for disinfection of drinking water. As with chlorine, however, unreacted chloramines may persist in the treated water, causing taste and odor problems when the water is drawn.

Activated carbon has traditionally been used to remove tastes and odors associated with chlorine and chloramine for many years.

加氯消毒是传统的提高饮用水生物安全性的方法,但水中氯的残留会带来令人不愉快的气味和味道,并可能引发健康方面的问题。

另外,为避免加氯消毒产生的三氯甲烷(THMs),很多自来水公司采用氯胺替代传统的氯气做消毒剂,但同样地,也会因残留的氯胺而带来异嗅和异味问题。

活性炭做为水中由氯气和氯胺引起的异嗅和异味的传统型脱除剂,已有许多年的应用历史。

1.1.2  Cryptosporidium and Giardia Inactivation

隐孢子虫和贾第虫的灭活

Cryptosporidium is a microscopic parasite present in almost all surface waters. When ingested through drinking water, it can cause cryptosporidiosis, an illness characterized by severe abdominal cramps and diarrhea, which can be fatal to individuals with suppressed immune systems.

The disinfection solution utilizes ultraviolet (UV) radiation for Cryptosporidium and Giardia inactivation. Addition of activated carbon adsorption, the technology also provides a barrier against viruses, bacteria and protozoans, without creating any disinfection by-products.

隐孢子虫是一种显微型寄生虫,几乎存在于所有地表水中。被摄入人体后会引起隐孢子虫病,患者出现严重的腹绞痛和腹泻症状,部分病人会因免疫系统缺陷而导致死亡。

可采用紫外线消毒法使水中的隐孢子虫和贾第鞭毛虫灭活,当附加采用活性炭吸附技术时,可同时消灭水中的病毒、细菌和原生动物,且避免消毒副产物的生成。

1.1.3  Hydrogen Sulfide Removal  硫化氢的脱除

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is well known for its characteristic "rotten egg" odor and associated taste problems in drinking water. The activated carbon adsorption technologies available to handle hydrogen sulfide contamination.

硫化氢是众所周知的具有“臭鸡蛋”气味的物质,使饮用水产生非常糟糕的味道。活性炭可用来有效去除水中的硫化氢污染物。

1.1.4  MTBE Removal  甲基叔丁基醚的脱除

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 brought methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) into our gas tanks to help reduce smog in our air. As a result of spills and refilling at pumping stations and leaky underground storage tanks, an increase in MTBE contamination of surface water sources and groundwater has been noted. MTBE is considered a potential carcinogen and has been regulated by the EPA for clean-up of contaminated water. MTBE removal from drinking water poses a difficult challenge, but some revolutionary activated carbon products has been developed for removal of contaminants such as MTBE.

1990年颁布的(美国)联邦清洁空气法案修正案将MTBE列入气相污染物排放控制范畴,以削减空气中光化学烟雾的含量水平。在向地下贮存仓中泵入MTBE过程中会不可避免地在泵站及贮仓环节发生不同程度的泄漏,由此引发的MTBE对地表水源和地下水的污染问题已引起关注。MTBE被认为是一种潜在的致癌物质,已被列入(美国)环境保护局水污染物管理名单。

从饮用水中去除MTBE困难极大,但已开发了一些专用型活性炭产品并在此领域得到了应用。

1.1.5  Taste and Odor Removal  脱除异嗅和异味

With so many different sources of undesirable tastes and odors in drinking water, a versatile and reliable method of removing these tastes and odors is needed. Some selected granular and powdered activated carbon products provide an effective solution for taste and odor removal.

由于有许多物质可引起饮用水具有令人不愉快的异嗅和异味,故需要寻求一种多功能的可靠的技术方法来脱除这些异嗅和异味。某些精制的颗粒状及粉状活性炭产品可符合这一要求。

 

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