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活性炭的应用领域概述Application of Activated Carbon(肆)  

2018-03-19 07:32:50|  分类: 活性炭产业 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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资料编辑:吉建斌2010年2月

1.4.3  Organic / Color / Odor / Toxicity Reduction

有机质/色/嗅/毒性的削减

Most industrial wastewater discharges are governed by National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits. Even when being discharged to a POTW, effluent quality criteria, based on specific organic limits, color, odor, or toxicity, generally must be met. Frequently, these criteria are so stringent that conventional wastewater treatment does not ensure consistent discharge compliance, but the Activated Carbon Adsorption is an effective solution for organic, color, odor and toxicity reduction.

大多数工业废水的排放需获得(美国)联邦污染物排放控制体系(NPDES)的许可,即使是将污水排放到公共污水处理厂(POTW)进行后继的严格处理,通常也要求进口污水的、与特殊有机质含量、色度、异嗅或毒性物质有关的参数符合污水质量标准限值。这些标准通常是非常严格的,传统的废水处理技术很难保证稳定达标排放需要,而活性炭吸附法则是削减其中的有机质、色度、异嗅和毒性物质的有效解决方案。

1.4.4  Landfill Leachate(Groundwater/Wastewater)Treatment

垃圾填埋场沥滤液(含污地下水/废水)的处理

Current technology for installation and management of landfills mitigates against leaks through landfill liner or cap design and installation practice, but many older installations have leached into the area beneath and in the vicinity - not only the surrounding unsaturated ground, but also often reaching the water table and groundwater. To prevent further environmental damage, both ground and groundwater in the vicinity of these landfills often require treatment. For the unsaturated zone, soil vapor extraction techniques have proven to be effective. For extraction and treatment of the groundwater, the Activated Carbon Adsorption is an effective solution to landfill leachate treatment that provides for organic contaminant removal and allows for discharge.

Current design landfill design may also incorporate effective collection of landfill leachates before they reach the surrounding groundwater. This water can be collected in pipes or trenches, or can migrate into the shallow groundwater, which is collected using clay barriers and withdrawal wells. This water can then be collected for treatment and discharge. Activated Carbon is a landfill leachate adsorption that removes organic compounds from this collected wastewater.

为避免发生液体或气体污染物泄漏,目前新建的垃圾填埋场都采用了防渗透地基设计和“覆盖帽”式设计,但许多较早投入使用的垃圾场的沥滤液则会直接渗入其下方及周边区域(不仅会渗入周围的水不饱和性土壤,而且经受能够到达含水层和地下水层)。为防止进一步的环境侵害,垃圾填埋场附近范围的土地及地下水均被要求进行处理。对于水不饱和性区域,土壤的蒸汽抽提技术被证明有效。而对于受到垃圾沥滤液污染的地下水,活性炭吸附技术是脱除其中有机物以实现达标排放的有效的技术方法。

最新的垃圾填埋场设计方案中可能已同时设计了沥滤液的收集系统,以避免其渗入并污染地下水体。垃圾沥滤液可采用管道或地沟收集,或者采用粘土防渗屏障或采用引流井将其引入浅表性地下水体。收集到一起的沥滤液或被稀释的沥滤液再经过处理,之后排放。活性炭可用来去除这种污水中的有机污染物。

1.4.5  point source/common industrial Wastewater Treatment

分流式/并流式工业排放废水的处理

Most industrial processes create waste streams that contain a variety of both inorganic and organic contaminants. These are most likely borne away in aqueous streams, which require treatment for contaminant removal, either close by the waste-generating process ("point source treatment"), or in a common wastewater treatment process combining several waste streams, a larger facility treating wastewater from an entire plant, or even waters collected from more than one site. Treatment goals may be mandated by permit or regulation, or may be determined by water quality goals for reuse or recycling. The Activated Carbon Adsorption offers a cost-effective wastewater treatment solution for reduced organic contamination, and safe disposition of organic waste material.

多数工业过程产生的废水中均同时含有多种无机和有机类污染物,其中的绝大多数需进行脱除的成分极可能都进入了最终排放液流中。废水的处理可采取“分流式”或称“点源式”处理,即:在产生这一废水的生产工序进行封闭式单独处理;也可采取“并流式”或称“合流式”处理,即:将几股不同来源的废水混合后,在厂区内设置的大型废水处理装置中集中处理,有时甚至会将不同工厂的废水集中到一起进行共同处理。废水处理的目标可能是达到强制性排放法规要求之后最终排放,也可能是对水质要求更严格的回收再循环利用目标。活性炭吸附是具有竞争力的削减有机污染物并对有机废弃物进行安全处置的废水处理技术。

1.4.6  Other Contaminated Water Treatment 其它含污水的处理

1.4.6.1  Construction Site Dewatering 基建工程排出水

During construction activities, contractors often need to excavate below or near the water table, and shallow groundwaters may be drawn into the excavated area and require removal and discharge. This water may be contaminated by organic compounds from previous occurrences that prevent its discharge to site effluent, surface waters or other facilities. Activated carbon products can be used to remove these organic contaminants.

在基建工程领域,经常需将地基基础挖掘到低于或接近于地下水位,浅层地下水会因此进入开掘区,这些渗出水须抽出并排放。由于施工过程中必然会采取措施以阻止渗出水进入工区或地表水体,或者浸入施工设施和设备,这些措施可能已使渗出水被有机质污染了。活性炭可用来脱除这些有机污染物。

 

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