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活性炭的应用领域概述Application of Activated Carbon(陆)  

2018-03-20 10:34:39|  分类: 活性炭产业 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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资料编辑:吉建斌2010年2月

2.3  Flue Gas Treatment  燃气的净化处理

2.3.1  Natural Gas Treatment: Removal of Mercury天然气脱汞

Many natural gas wellheads contain small quantities of mercury, which cause corrosion in the aluminum cryogenic exchangers used in LNG and LPG plants. In addition, mercury present in hydrocarbon gas streams will reduce the life of many precious metal catalysts. Activated carbon products can be used to remove mercury from natural gas.

刚开采出来的天然气经常会含有少量的汞,在天然气经低温冷冻技术制成液化天然气和液化石油气的过程中,这些汞会对铝质制冷设备产生腐蚀。另外,天然气被用作碳氢化合物合成原料气体时,这些汞会缩短贵金属类催化剂的使用寿命。活性炭产品可用来去除天然气中的汞成分。

2.3.2  Natural Gas Treatment: Removal of Sulfur Compounds

天然气脱硫化物

Natural gas feedstocks, for processes such as ammonia, methanol, and hydrogen production, contain sulfur compounds. These compounds can deactivate reforming and shift catalysts, which necessitates expensive catalyst replacement and causes a loss of production. The special impregnated grade activated carbons can remove sulfur compounds from inert gas streams, specifically, hydrogen sulfide and low-molecular

-weight organic sulfur compounds.

    用作合成氨、甲醇、氢气生产原料的天然气会含有硫化物,硫化物可使重构和变换催化剂失去活性,进而因必须更换昂贵的催化剂而使产品产量降低,引起损失。而特制的浸渍级活性炭能用来脱除惰性气体中的硫化物,尤其是用于脱除其中的硫化氢和低分子量有机硫化物。

2.4  Coal-fired Power Plants Flue Gas Emissions Control  燃煤电厂烟气排放控制

2.4.1 Mercury Emissions Control  汞排放控制

Coal-fired utility plants have long been viewed as an efficient and cost effective means of sately producing power. Increasing environmental concerns in recent years have resulted in a more complete review of the emissions released in the flue gas. Of all the substances emitted, mercury is one of the major concerns due to the toxicity and persistence in the environment.

Powdered activated carbon has been successfully used and found to be cost effective for mercury removal from flue gas generated by waste incinerators, industrial combustors, hazardous waste incinerators, metal smelters, and coal-fired power plants.

燃煤型电厂一直被认为是能够高效率、低成本、安全地生产电力的方式。近年来随着人们对环保关注度的持续提高,烟气排放得以更加全面的审视。在所有排出的物质中,汞是主要受关注的对象之一,原因是汞具有毒性且能持久地存在于环境中。

对于产生于废弃物焚烧炉、工业燃烧机、有害废物焚烧炉、金属烧结炉以及燃煤电厂的烟气中的汞,实践证明粉状活性炭是一种低成本的脱汞技术,目前该技术已得到广泛应用。

2.4.2 Desulphurization & Denitration  脱硫和脱硝

Sulphur Oxides and Nitrogen Oxides are two major emissions released in the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The granular or pallet activated carbon or active coke products can be used as adsorbent for Sulphur Oxides, at the same time they can convert Nitrogen Oxides and extraneous ammonia into nitrogen by Selective Catalytic Reaction.

硫氧化物和氮氧化物是燃煤电厂烟气中两种主要的污染物。粒状或挤条状活性炭或活性焦产品可用来吸附硫氧化物,与此同时,通过选择性催化还原反应,活性炭或活性焦可将氮氧化物和另外加入的氨一起转化为氮气。

2.5  Carbon Dioxide Treatment二氧化碳的净化处理

2.5.1  Organics Removal  有机物脱除

Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas widely used in industrial and food applications. It is produced from combustion of carbonaceous fuels, from fermentation operations, and underground wells. Often there are impurities associated with CO2 production that must be removed prior to its use. The presence of organic contaminants can preclude the use of CO2 in a number of applications, but activated carbon has a proven solution for organics removal.

二氧化碳是一种广泛用于工业和食品加工业的气体性原料,可通过燃烧含碳燃料、或通过发酵过程、或从地下气田抽取的方法来获得二氧化碳原料气体。通常都会有杂质伴随二氧化碳一起产生,且这些杂质均被要求预先脱除。有机污染物对许多采用二氧化碳的过程有不利影响,可选用活性炭来脱除这些有机物质。

2.5.2  Sulfur Compound Removal  硫化物的脱除

Contaminated carbon dioxide (CO2) streams are encountered in industrial processes, such as fermentation off-gases, and as natural CO2 produced from wells. These CO2 streams will typically contain odorous hydrocarbons and sulfur compounds that must be removed in order to make the CO2 suitable for use. A variety of granular activated carbons and specialty grade impregnated activated carbons can be used for effective hydrocarbon and sulfur compound removal from gas streams.

含污二氧化碳气体可能产生于许多的工业制造过程,例如从发酵尾气中提取、或从井田抽取天然形态的二氧化碳气体等。为不影响二氧化碳的使用,必须先脱除其中的污染物,尤其是具有不愉快气味的碳氢化合物和硫化物。一系列的颗粒活性炭以及特制的浸渍活性炭可用来高效地从原料气体中脱除这些碳氢化合物和硫化物。

 

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